Universal access to affordable, sustainable and clean energy remains a challenge, especially in Africa. In 2019, some 759 million people still did not have access to electricity – 570 million (75%) in sub-Saharan Africa – and at the rate of progress as of 2021, the world was not on track to meet Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) by 2030 (IEA et al., 2021). Nevertheless, the International Energy Agency (IEA) projects electricity generation in Africa to grow threeto four-fold above 2020 levels by 2050 (IEA, 2021a).
In the context of an urgent need to reduce and eliminate unabated carbon emissions, Africa has a unique opportunity to leapfrog fossil-fuelled development in favour of policy and development based on renewable energy, with recent analysis showing that this could greatly enhance regional economic growth and job creation (IRENA & AfDB, 2022). This is despite the continent having the least historic and current responsibility for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.